Article by Tsaaro

7 min read



In today’s digital age, data protection and privacy are crucial for businesses, especially those operating online. As companies increasingly rely on data to make informed decisions and engage with customers, the need for robust data protection laws has become paramount. The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 (DPDPA), is a significant milestone in this regard, particularly for e-commerce businesses worldwide. 

The DPDPA, which became law in India following Presidential Assent on August 11, 2023, sets out comprehensive requirements for data protection. It mandates numerous responsibilities for Data Fiduciaries—entities that determine the purpose and means of processing personal data—to safeguard data and restrict its processing. At the same time, it grants extensive rights to Data Principals, or individuals whose personal data is being processed. 

Identifying the Data Fiduciary in E-commerce 

A critical aspect of the DPDPA is determining who the Data Fiduciary is in the context of e-commerce. The key question here is whether it is the retailers, the platform providers, or both. Typically, the platform provider collects personal data during user registration and uses it for analytics, targeting, and marketing. This positions the platform provider as a Data Fiduciary. 

However, large retailers or sellers on these platforms may also qualify as Data Fiduciaries. These entities decide what data to collect to process orders, thereby also playing a role in determining the purpose and means of data processing. Therefore, both platform providers and significant sellers could be considered Data Fiduciaries under the DPDPA. 

Implications for E-commerce Businesses 

Data Processing Practices 

E-commerce companies handle vast amounts of user data for various activities, including transaction processing, personalized marketing, and customer service. The DPDPA requires that data processing practices comply with state legal requirements. These include: 

  • Obtaining explicit consent from Data Principals for processing their personal data. 
  • Ensuring data is complete, accurate, and up to date. 
  • Providing itemized notices when requesting personal information. 
  • Establishing effective grievance redressal mechanisms through an authorized representative or a Data Protection Officer (DPO). 
  • Additional safeguards for processing children’s data, including obtaining parental consent and restricting behavioral monitoring. 
  • To avoid substantial fines, e-commerce businesses must audit their data practices to ensure compliance with these requirements. 

Enhanced Consent Management 

One of the DPDPA’s major changes is the need for users informed and explicit consent before processing their data. E-commerce companies must revise their consent mechanisms to ensure that customers fully understand how their data will be used before giving consent. This means implementing more transparent and detailed consent forms and processes that clearly outline the data being collected, its purpose, and how it will be used. 

Expanded Rights for Individuals 

The DPDPA empowers individuals with greater control over their personal data. E-commerce businesses must be prepared to respond to customer requests for data access, deletion, transfer, and correction. The Act also introduces the concept of a Consent Manager—an individual registered by the Data Protection Board who helps Data Principals manage their consent. This person acts as a point of contact for grievance redressal and must ensure that individuals’ rights are upheld. 

Under the new legislation, individuals have the right to know what data is being collected about them, request corrections to any inaccuracies, and even demand the deletion of their data. Additionally, they can transfer their data from one service provider to another, further enhancing their control over personal information. This level of empowerment requires e-commerce businesses to have robust systems in place to handle such requests efficiently and within the stipulated timeframes. 

Stricter Data Processing Principles 

The DPDPA emphasizes minimizing data collection, limiting storage duration, and maintaining data accuracy. E-commerce companies must review their data processing procedures to ensure they only collect necessary data, keep it accurate, and store it for an appropriate length of time. The Act requires that personal data be deleted when the consent is withdrawn or the purpose for which it was collected is no longer valid. This may necessitate changes to data storage systems, data collection forms, and retention policies. 

Businesses must ensure that data is processed lawfully, fairly, and transparently. Data minimization means collecting only what is necessary for the intended purpose. Storage limitation requires businesses to retain data only for as long as it is needed. Data accuracy mandates that personal data be kept up-to-date and corrected without delay if inaccuracies are found. These principles help ensure that e-commerce companies handle data responsibly and ethically. 

Cross-Border Data Transfers 

The DPDPA places additional scrutiny on transferring personal data outside India. Transfers are allowed to specific territories or countries designated by the Central Government. However, certain laws or regulations may impose higher protection standards, further restricting cross-border data transfers. E-commerce businesses must ensure compliance with these regulations when transferring data internationally. 

Cross-border data transfer is a significant concern for global e-commerce businesses that operate in multiple countries. The DPDPA stipulates that personal data can only be transferred to countries that provide an adequate level of data protection as recognized by the Indian government. This means businesses must conduct thorough assessments and possibly adjust their data transfer protocols to comply with these requirements. Failure to adhere to these regulations can result in severe penalties, making it crucial for businesses to stay informed about the latest legal developments. 

Data Protection Officers (DPOs) 

While not all Data Fiduciaries are required to appoint a DPO, significant e-commerce organizations identified as Significant Data Fiduciaries must do so. The DPO is responsible for managing compliance, serving as a point of contact for data protection authorities, and overseeing data protection strategies. Significant Data Fiduciaries also have additional obligations, including conducting regular data protection impact assessments, periodic data audits, and appointing an independent auditor. 

The role of a DPO is critical in ensuring that an organization adheres to the data protection laws and maintains the trust of its customers. DPOs must have a deep understanding of the DPDPA and be able to implement strategies that mitigate data protection risks. They also play a key role in training staff on data protection practices and managing any data breaches or compliance issues that arise. For significant e-commerce businesses, having a DPO is not just a regulatory requirement but a strategic advantage in maintaining customer trust and protecting the business from potential legal repercussions. 

The DPDPA represents a pivotal shift in data privacy and protection in India, with far-reaching implications for e-commerce businesses. The Act imposes stringent requirements on handling and processing personal data, ensuring the protection of Data Principals’ rights. Complying with these obligations is not just a legal necessity but also a way for businesses to build consumer trust and confidence. Non-compliance with the DPDPA can result in hefty fines, posing a significant financial risk to businesses. Therefore, it is crucial for e-commerce companies to understand and fulfill their obligations under the Act. This commitment extends beyond legal compliance; it is about fostering a reputation for respecting privacy and protecting data, which can ultimately enhance consumer trust and loyalty.  


In summary, the DPDPA 2023 demands that e-commerce businesses carefully evaluate and adjust their data processing practices, consent management processes, and overall data protection strategies. By doing so, they can not only comply with the law but also demonstrate a strong commitment to data privacy and protection, which is increasingly important in today’s digital landscape. Implementing the DPDPA’s requirements involves significant changes to how e-commerce businesses operate, from rethinking data collection practices to enhancing consent management and appointing dedicated personnel for data protection. However, these changes are essential for maintaining compliance and avoiding hefty fines. More importantly, they represent an opportunity for businesses to show their dedication to protecting consumer data, thereby strengthening their relationship with customers and enhancing their market reputation. The journey towards full compliance with the DPDPA may be challenging, but it is a necessary step in the evolving landscape of digital commerce. As businesses adapt to these new regulations, they will not only protect themselves from legal risks but also position themselves as leaders in data protection and privacy. This proactive approach to data protection will be a key differentiator in the competitive e-commerce market, helping businesses attract and retain customers who value their privacy and trust companies that prioritize data protection. 

Shubham Bansal

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